An organization chart for the United States Coast Guard shows the hierarchy of managerial roles in that organization. On these terms it can’t have a pre-modern day history, only harbingers (such as stewards ). Other people, nonetheless, detect management-like-believed back to Sumerian traders and to the builders of the pyramids of ancient Egypt Slave-owners by means of the centuries faced the difficulties of exploiting/motivating a dependent but sometimes unenthusiastic or recalcitrant workforce, but quite a few pre-industrial enterprises , provided their tiny scale, did not really feel compelled to face the troubles of management systematically.
Men and women who aim at becoming management researchers or professors might total the Doctor of Business Administration (DBA) or the PhD in business administration or management. Some see management (by definition) as late-modern (in the sense of late modernity ) conceptualization. Middle managers communicate the strategic objectives of senior management to the front-line managers. In most models of management and governance , shareholders vote for the board of directors , and the board then hires senior management.